中子技术 轮廓法 数值模拟

【深度科普(4/8)】中子散射技术的应用—电子信息

发布时间:2017-04-28


    在过去50年里,数据的存储与处理呈现爆发式增长,存储设备能够容纳数百G歌曲、图片和文字,同时他们的体积却在不断地缩小。中子散射技术能够帮助我们提高手机电子组件的性能,控制生物传感器的品质。使用中子散射技术亦可在原子尺度上分布磁性,此独特的能力正被用于在更小的面积上存储更多的数据,制造超灵敏数据读取感应器、开发新型计算机内存。除此之外,英国散裂中子源还在协助航空公司处理宇宙辐射对航空器上微型芯片的影响。

    Over the past 50 years, the amount of information stored and processed has witnessed explosive growth, allowing hundreds of gigabytes of songs, pictures and words to be recorded onto devices which are continually shrinking in size. Neutron scattering techniques can help us improve the performance of the electronic components inside mobile phones and control the quality of biosensors. The unique ability of neutron scattering to map out magnetism at the atomic scale is being used to pack more gigabytes into smaller areas, create ultra-sensitive sensors to read back the data, and develop new types of computer memory. Besides, ISIS is helping aerospace companies to manage the effects of cosmic radiation on microchips flown in aircraft.


01
手机陶瓷

Mobile phone

ceramics


    陶瓷天线通常安装在基站和手机中,用于传递通讯信号,每部手机都通过细小的陶瓷天线收发各自特定的工作频率。随着客户需求的增加和手机设计的不断进化,市场对于提高陶瓷零件性能和降低其成本的需求同时增加。减少功率耗损就是其中重要的一环,这就要求在生产过程中必须严格保证质量。

    The ceramic antennas assembled in base stations and mobile handsets are used for delivering the singles. Every mobile phone uses the ceramic antennas to transmit their dedicated operating frequencies. Consumer demand and evolving design of mobile phones has created a need to improve performance and lower the costs of these ceramic components. This includes reducing their power loss, which makes quality assurance essential during manufacture.

 

    手机内部构件的运行效果与所用材料的性能紧密相连。幸运的是,中子散射技术能够帮助生产商对所用材料的性能提出精准的要求。英国Powerwave公司在中子散射设施中对一个关键性的生产环节进行了原位实验:把陶瓷零件加热至1000°C以上。该项研究测出了不同电性能的材料,在相同的工艺条件下,其原子层面上所呈现出的差别。这种检验方式比原先的“试错”模式更高效,帮助制造商为这些部件制定了正确的性能指标。

    The performance of components inside mobile phones is closely related to material properties. Neutron scattering can help manufacturers get the right specification. Wireless solutions company Powerwave UK has re-created a critical manufacturing stage, inside a neutrons cattering facility where the ceramic components are heated to over 1000°C. The research was able to identify atomic-scale differences between materials processed under identical conditions, but having different electrical properties. This testing was significantly more efficient than previoustrial-and-error methods, and has aided the manufacture of these components to the right specification. 


    中子散射实验为我们了解复杂陶瓷材料的结构提供了必要数据。

—— David Iddles

英国Powerwave公司

    Neutron scattering experiments generated the data necessary to understand the structure of these complex ceramic materials.

—— David Iddles

Powerwave UK


02
传染病感染器

Infection

sensor


    监测生物系统的传感器由生物元素和电子设备组成。诊断传染性疾病时,生物传感器必须灵敏、快速辨别出是病毒性感染或细菌性感染。例如脑膜炎有细菌性脑膜炎和病毒性脑膜炎两种,如果诊断错误,对于病人结果将是致命的。

    Sensors to monitor living systems are made up of a mix of biological elements and electronics. When diagnosing infectious diseases, these biosensors must be sensitive and quick enough to distinguish between a virus and a bacterial infection. For example, meningitis comes in bacterial or viral forms and can be fatal if diagnosed incorrectly.


    中子散射实验有助于控制生物传感器的质量控制。从Newcastle大学分离出来的Orla蛋白技术公司,为开发新一代生物传感器的大公司生产特制的蛋白表面。作为如今唯一可行的一项技术,中子散射使Orla公司能够检测比人类头发丝还要薄10000倍的生物工程表面的质量。Orla的生物传感器拥有高性能的蛋白表面:一个能够检测出样品中特性指示分子的隐形生物工程膜。该生物工程膜非常非常的薄,即使将30000张这样的生物工程膜相叠在一起也才只有一张纸的厚度。中子散射技术为确保蛋白表面生产的可靠性提供了必要的信息。

    Biosensor quality control gets green light from neutron scattering experiments. Orla Protein Technologies, a spin-out from Newcastle University, makes bespoke protein surfaces for large companies developing the next generation of biosensors. Neutron scattering is the only technique that enables Orla to test the quality of its bio-engineered surfaces at scales 10,000 times smaller than a human hair. Orla’s biosensors have a high-performance protein surface, an invisible engineered biological film that detects the tell-tale molecules in a sample. This engineered biological film is so thin that a stack of 30,000 would only be as thick as a sheet of paper. Neutron scattering gives the information necessary to ensure that the protein surfaces are reliable for manufacturing.


    借助中子散射技术,我们可以在反应中引入符号标记分子,帮助我们了解每个部件的具体位置。这些成果坚定了客户对我们的信任,也对我们的业务成败至关重要。

—— Jeremy Lakey教授

Orla蛋白技术公司

    With neutron scattering we can introduce label molecules in reactions to help us tell where each component part is. These results reassure our customers and are essential for the success of our business.

—— Professor Jeremy Lakey

Orla Protein Technologies

03
磁电子学

Magnetic

electronics




    传统电子设备依赖于印刷在硅片上微型电路中的运动电子所产生的电流。一项名为“自旋电子学”(或磁电子)的新兴技术同时利用电子的磁性开发了一个功能强大的新类型部件,此技术在信息、汽车和医疗领域有诸多的应用潜力。

    Conventional electronics relies on electrical currents caused by moving electrons around minute circuits etched on silicon. An emerging technology called ‘spintronics’ uses the magnetic properties of electrons at the same time to create a powerful new class of components. This technology has potential for a variety of applications in IT, motoring and healthcare.

 

    最广泛使用的自旋电子部件就是台式电脑和手提电脑中的硬盘驱动器的读头(读卡器)。自旋电子读头能够感应只有几个原子厚度层的磁性变化,与过去的技术相比,它能读取更小的数据单元。这个进步使得数据存储密度在过去5年中提高了40倍。

    The most widely used spintronic device is found in the read-head of magnetic hard-disk drives used inside desktop and laptop computers. The spintronic read-head senses changes in the magnetism of layers only a few atoms thick allowing it to read smaller data bits than older technology. This has given a 40-fold increase in data-storage density in the last five years.

 

然而,大多数最有希望被工业界用于未来器件的材料,却只能在诸如极低温或强磁场这类极端环境下才能工作。目的是懂得这些新材料的复杂物理特性,从而使它们在室温条件下也能工作。许多英国大学和企业正在攻克这个难题,希望通过对自旋电子材料的化学和电磁结构的层层了解,把它们的基本物理特性与实际表现行为联系起来。中子散射技术对开辟自旋电子学强有力的新一代应用至关重要。

But many of the most promising materials, which industry hopes to deploy in future devices, only work under extreme conditions such as very low temperatures or large magnetic fields. The aim is to understand the complex physics of these new materials to get them to work at room temperature. A number of UK universities and companies are attacking the problem to get a layer-by-layer understanding of the chemical and magnetic structure to connect the fundamental physics of spintronic materials with their actual behaviour. Neutron scattering is critical in exploiting spintronics for a powerful new generation of applications.



    我们的目的是要了解这些新材料的复杂物理特性,以并使它们在室温环境下工作。中子散射技术对开辟自旋电子学强有力的新一代应用至关重要。

—— Sean Langridge教授

STFC ISIS

    Our aim is to understand the complex physics of these new materials to get them to work at room temperature. Neutron scattering is critical in exploiting spintronics for a powerful new generation of applications.

—— Professor Sean Langridge

STFC ISIS


04
中子雨

Neutron

rain

 


    

    宇宙射线撞击地球大气层产生了高能中子雨,并降落在地球上。在飞机的正常飞行高9000-10000米,每隔几秒钟计算机芯片就可能被一个中子击中,干扰飞机上的电子设备而引起故障,轻则清除电子设备内存,重则对电子设备造成损坏。

    Cosmic rays hitting the earth’s atmosphere generate showers of high energy neutrons that rain down on earth. At normal aircraft flying altitudes of 9,000 to 10,000 meters, a silicon chip can be struck by a neutron every few seconds disrupting aircraft electronics which can cause problems ranging from wiping a device’s memory to damaging the electronics.

 

    BAE,Aero EngineControls,QinetiQ 和 MBDA等航空业巨头纷纷借助中子技术对电子元件进行测试,以控制宇宙射线的辐射作用。英国散裂中子源正在协助航空公司处理宇宙辐射对航空器上微型芯片的影响,英国散裂中子源的专用实验设备能够在一小时内模拟数百年设备可接受到的中子束。

    Using neutrons, leading aerospace companies such as BAE, Aero Engine Controls, QinetiQ and MBDA are able to test components and manage the effects of cosmic radiation. ISIS is helping them to manage the effects of cosmic radiation on microchips flown in aircraft. Dedicated testing facilities at ISIS can replicate hundreds of years of flying time in one hour of testing. 

 

    随着电子芯片体积的缩小,中子辐照效应对地面设备的影响也日益显著,如在交通运输、通讯、医药和计算机系统等其他领域。

    As the dimensions of electronic chip components continue to shrink, neutron effects are also being seen at ground-level in other areas such as transport, communications, medicine, and computing systems.




ISIS是世界上仅有的几个能够产生出足够量度的高能中子,进行加速实验的设施之一。ISIS的新设备-Chipir将会是全世界最好的检查设备。

——  Andrew Chugg

MBDA

ISIS is one of few facilities in the world capable of producing enough very high energy neutrons to perform accelerated testing. The new Chipir instrument at ISIS will be the best screening facility in the world.

——  Andrew Chugg

MBDA








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