中子技术 轮廓法 数值模拟

【深度科普(1/8)】什么是中子散射?中子散射的应用领域有哪些?

发布时间:2017-03-31

什么是中子?What is neutron?

    中子在自然界中广泛存在。中子、质子和电子是材料世界的基础。中子与质子在原子中心紧密结合。

    Neutrons are abundant throughout nature. Along with protons and electrons, they form the basic building blocks of the material world. Neutrons are tightly bound together with protons in the nucleus at the center of an atom.


如何获取中子?How to generate neutron?

    获取中子束流的方法通常有两种,一种是利用反应堆内的铀燃料发生核裂变反应从而产生中子,另一种是通过高能粒子加速器对粒子加速后轰击金属靶从而释放出中子。

    The most common methods of making neutron beams for materials research are nuclear fission using uranium fuel in a reactor, or spallation, where a high-power particle accelerator fires a particle beam into a metal target to release neutrons.


什么是中子散射?What is neutron scattering?

    从上世纪80年代开始,加速器中子源逐渐引起了各个国家的投资兴趣。英国ISIS散裂中子源就是世界上成功运行的典型代表。基于ISIS散裂源的相关技术,日本、美国和中国纷纷投资开始建造新的散裂中子源。

    Since the 1980s, accelerator-based neutron sources have become the global technology of choice for new investment. ISIS (The UK’s spallation neutron source near Oxford) is the world’s most successful neutron source of this type, and new spallation neutron sources in Japan, America and China are founded on ISIS instrumentation and technology.


中国散裂中子源CSNS鸟瞰图

Bird’s-eye view of CSNS

图片来源:中国科学院中国散裂中子源

(From: CSNS, CAS) 


    由中国科学院、广东省和东莞市共同投资约23亿元人民币建设的,位于广东省东莞市的中国散裂中子源是我国“十一五”期间重点建设的十二个大科学装置之首。计划于2018年建成,建成后将成为中国最大的科学装置之一,跻身世界四大散裂中子源行列。

    The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), located in Dongguan, Guangdong, is the largest national scientific and technological infrastructure of the 12 major large-scale scientific facilities in 11th Five Year Plan period, co-invested(2.3 billion RMB) by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the municipal governments of Guangdong province and Dongguan city. Its construction is expected to be accomplished in 2018. Upon its accomplishment, it will be the first spallation neutron source amongst the developing countries, and one of the four spallation neutron sources in the world.

    为充分利用中国散裂中子源资源,拓展中国散裂中子源在材料与装备制造领域的应用与研究,东莞材料基因高等理工研究院(CEAM),将建设中国第一台利用散裂中子的工程材料衍射谱仪以及相关的配套科研设施,发展先进材料科学与应力工程产业。

    In order to take full advantage of the CSNS and to broaden its applications to the research of advanced materials and high-end equipment manufacturing, the Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials(CEAM) is formed to build the China's first pulsed neutron diffractometer for engineering materials, as well as other supplementary scientific facilities. CEAM is aimed for the development of advanced materials and the application of stress engineering in high-end manufacturing.


中子散射应用领域有哪些?The applications of neutron scattering

    在过去的40多年以来,科学家门通过高强中子束流,利用中子与物质之间独特的交互响应,在原子尺度上对材料进行了深入研究,不断地刷新了人们对材料物理化学性能的认知水平。中子散射技术最初主要应用在物理学研究方面,目前已逐步扩展到工业、医疗、考古、生物等各个领域。散裂中子源为众多学科前沿领域的研究提供了一种最先进的、不可替代的研究工具。在当今社会最为关心的能源、环境、生物、新材料和国防等诸多领域有着广泛的应用。

    With the availability of intense neutron beams over the past 40 years, the unique interaction of neutrons with matter has been used for materials research to understand the physical and chemical properties of matter at the atomic scale. From the early days as a technique rooted in physics, the science now making use of neutron scattering has grown to cover everything from engineering to medicine, archaeology to zoology.



copyright © 2016 东莞材料基因高等理工研究院 .All Rights Reserved.     粤ICP备16087785号-1